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Taal: The ''very small but dangerous volcano''

菲律宾的塔阿尔火山:一座很小但是很危险的火山



Taal is one of the Philippines'' most active volcanoes.

北京11选5_[官网首页]塔阿尔火山是菲律宾的一座活火山。

Over the past few days, it''s begun spewing lava, triggering earthquakes and emitting huge plumes of ash that have spread across the island of Luzon and beyond.

在过去的几天内,这座火山开始喷出岩浆,这引发了地震,导致了大量的火山灰的弥漫,这些火山灰笼罩了吕宋岛和其它周围的地区。

Scientists fear a bigger "hazardous eruption" is imminent.

科学家们担心这座火山很快要发生更大的灾难性的喷发了。



Volcano Island alone has 47 craters and 4 maars - volcanic craters that form when hot magma comes into contact with shallow ground water, producing a violent steam explosion. Other vents and eruption points are underneath Lake Taal.

北京11选5_[官网首页]这座火山岛有47个主火山口和4个低平火山口,当岩浆和浅层地下水接触后,会产生猛烈的水蒸气爆炸。低平火山口则位于湖水之下。

The entire Volcano Island has been marked as a permanent danger zone by Phivolcs.

北京11选5_[官网首页]整座火山岛已经被菲律宾火山与地震学研究所列为永久危险区域。

It''s unpredictable

这座火山的喷发是不可预测的

At least 35 eruptions have been reported within the last few hundred years - the most recent was in 1977.

在过去的几百年间,这座火山至少被记录到了有过35次喷发。最近一次喷发发生在1977年。

A "very violent" eruption in 1911 from the main crater caused rock particles and fragments to shoot out of the volcano, according to news outlet Rappler. That event killed more than 1,300 people.

一次“非常猛烈”的喷发发生在1911年,当时这座火山的主火山口喷出了岩石颗粒和碎片。北京11选5_[官网首页]那次喷发事件造成了超过1300人的死亡。

US-based volcanologist Jess Phoenix says Taal has "a history of multiple eruption styles", so it creates threats on the ground in the form of lava and in the air through ash.

北京11选5_[官网首页]美国的一位火山学家杰斯.菲尼克斯说:“塔阿尔火山在历史上有很多种喷发形式。它所喷发出的岩浆会侵蚀大地,而喷发出的火山灰会弥漫在空气中。”



There''s also the risk of a "volcanic tsunami", she adds, which can be trigged by falling debris after an eruption generating waves in the lake.

她说:“这座火山的喷发还可能因为其喷出的物质导致湖水掀起大浪从而引发海啸。”

"Any of these types of threats would be a major hazard for people nearby," says Ms Phoenix.

菲尼克斯女士说:“任何形式的喷发都会对附近的居民造成巨大的威胁。”

The lake is also "potentially dangerous", as water could interact with the magma, making it "more explosive", said Mr Kennedy.

肯尼迪先生表示:这座湖也有“潜在的危险性”,因为湖水会和岩浆相互作用,可能随时会发生更大的爆炸。

"If water gets to the exploding lava surface it flashes to steam and rapidly solidifies the lava it interacts with, making a very fine ash that explodes higher into the atmosphere and can travel further," he told the BBC.

他对BBC说:“如果湖水接触到了爆炸的岩浆,它会很快被汽化,然后让它所接触到的岩浆快速凝固。最终这些凝固的岩浆会以火山灰的形式剧烈喷出,喷到更高的大气中,飘到更远的地方。”

It''s close to lots of people

这座火山附近有太多人居住

One of the main reasons people are worried is Taal''s proximity to millions of people.

人们的其中一个担心在于塔阿尔火山的附近生活着成百上千万人。



"Metro Manila is a few tens of kilometres away with a population of over 10 million, and there are multiple cities within 30km that have more than 100,000 people in each, not counting the smaller towns in between," James White, head of geology at the University of Otago, told the BBC.

北京11选5_[官网首页]奥塔哥大学的地质系主任詹姆斯.怀特对BBC说:“马尼拉大都会离这座火山只有几十公里的距离,那里生活着1000多万人,在火山附近还有好几座城市的人口超过了10万人,这还没有包括那些更小的城市。”

The UN Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) says that more than 450,000 people are estimated to live within the newly designated 14km danger zone.

联合国人道主义事务协调办公室方面表示:据估计有大约超过45万人生活在新划定的半径14公里的危险区域内。



Mr White said a 500m tall fountain would mean "a lot of magma being erupted".

怀特先生说:“岩浆喷出的高度高达500米,这意味着这次喷发喷出的岩浆非常多。”

Heavy ash from Taal continues to fall on nearby municipalities and a total of 212 volcanic earthquakes have taken place so far.

北京11选5_[官网首页]塔阿尔火山喷出的厚厚的火山灰现在持续落到了邻近的市镇,截至目前,这场喷发总共造成了212次火山地震的发生。

"The seismic activity seems to indicate that there is more magma under the volcano and the eruption may continue," said Mr Kennedy. "However volcanoes can just as easily quiet down as become more explosive."

北京11选5_[官网首页]肯尼迪先生说:“发生的地震活动说明了在火山下有更多的岩浆在翻涌,这场喷发可能会持续下去。然而,火山也有可能会很快平静下来,但随后可能会变得更加活跃。”

Earthquakes and volcanic activity are not uncommon in the Philippines, which lies along the Ring of Fire - a zone of major seismic activity, which has one of the world''s most active fault lines.

地震和火山活动在菲律宾并不罕见,菲律宾位于被称作“火圈”的环太平洋火山地震带上,这条地震带是世界上火山活动最活跃的断层之一。